KHUTBA OF THE LAST HAJJ OF PROPHET MOHAMMAD (SAS)
Prophet Muhammad (SAS) preached Islam for twenty three years under very difficult circumstances. Now Allah (SWT) wanted to show him the fruits of his sincere efforts. He performed his last Hajj during 10 H in the company of one hundred and forty thousand (or 124,000 in other naration) believers. He made an historic address in Arafat on the 9th of Zul Hajja standing on Jabl-ur Rahmah before Dhur Salat. Bilal (RA) and Rabia bin Khalf ربية بن خلف) ) were repeating the wording of the Prophet (SAS) to the people standing far away from the Prophet (SAS).
The Prophet (SAS) said, “Please listen to me carefully since it may be my last meeting with you at this place. If you fear Allah (SWT) and obey Allah (SWT), He will safeguard your life, your property and your honor until He calls you back.”
The Prophet (SAS) added, “Please do that what I tell you. I advise you to return deposits of people with you in original form and do not betray your trust knowingly. Do not indulge in interest. Interest of time of ignorance is forbidden in Islam. You can, however, receive your capital amount. Allah has only forbidden interest. I, hereby, announce that the interest payable to my Uncle Abbas (RA) is null and void.
Note that if a person kills another person, the punishment will be death for the killer. If however, a person kills another person unintentionally, the killer will have to pay one hundred camels.
The Prophet (SAS) added, “Satan is very upset since he knows that no one is left in your land who is willing to listen or follow the Satan. Do not forget that Satan will pursue you all the time. Satan will try to show you the path which leads to ignorance. Satan knows that he cannot interfere in your religious affairs. He will, however, try to interfere with your other affairs in the form innovations. Hence you should be alert to safeguard yourself from Satan. So much so that you should be careful even in petty matters so that Satan may not poke his nose in even your petty matter in order to destroy the foundation of your religion.”
“Listen, do not try to include a regular month into the sacred month. It is an innovation. The months of Islam are same which Allah (SWT) has mentioned in Quran. There are twelve month in a year, out of which four are sacred which are Rajab, Zulqadah, Zulhajjah and Muharrum.”
“Now I would like to advice you about your women. They have rights over you and you have rights over them. It is their duty to protect your honor and do not let those persons enter your homes whom you dislike. If they are not careful in fulfilling their duty to you, you are allowed to slightly beat them but not severely. If they fulfill their duty to you adequately, you should provide them good food and suitable clothing. I advise you to behave nicely with your ladies and be kind and loving to them. They are a trust of Allah (SWT) with you and you are allowed to marry them as prescribed by Allah (SWT). I say again to you, beware of Allah (SWT) and behave very nicely towards your women.”
“Listen carefully. The believers are brothers in Islam. You should respect and protect each other’s wealth. A believer is not allowed to take other’s wealth without the prior permission of the owner. Listen, do not intend to kill each other after I go away. You should rather hold strongly the rope of Islamic brotherhood among yourselves. I shall go away from this world and I shall leave with you the Book of Allah (SWT) and Sunnah of the Prophet for your guidance. These will prevent you going astray. Have I fulfilled my duty to you? O Allah, have I completely fulfilled the duty you assigned to me?” The audience again answered very emotionally in one voice, “We stand witness that you have fulfilled the duty assigned to you.”
“Listen, your Lord is one and your forefather is also one. All are children of Adam (AS). Adam (AS) was made from mud. In this way, all of you are also made of mud and nobody is superior to others. In fact, a person with more fear of Allah (SWT) is superior to others in the eyes of Allah (SWT). Hence no Arab can claim that he is superior to non Arabs. Superior is the one who is more pious and God fearing.”
The Prophet (SAS) added, “I ask the audience to convey my message to those who are not present here today so that my message may reach all the Muslims. My dear brothers in Islam, Allah (SWT) has fixed portion of inheritance for every survivor which he must receive. Hence do not leave a will which assigns more part for a survivor than what Allah (SWT) has fixed. If you wish to leave a will for a stranger, who may not even be your relative, it should not exceed one third of your total inheritance or belongings.”
At this point, the Prophet (SAS) asked the audience, “Have I fulfilled my duty as a Messenger to you? O Allah (SWT), have I fulfilled my duty which you assigned to me?” All the audience answered in one voice, “We stand witness that you have fulfilled your duty to us.”
The Prophet (SAS) ended his address with Aslamu ‘Alaikum i.e. Peace of Allah (SWT) be upon you. Allah (SWT) revealed the following verse as the Prophet (SAS) finished his address. Al-Ma’idah #3
Today We have perfected your religion and completed Our blessing on you and choose Islam for you as your religion .
Ibne Omar (RA) narrated that when Omar (RA) heard this verse, he broke into tears. The audience ask him what made you cry. He said, “After every climax there is always anticlimax.” (Bukhari)
The Jews said to Omar (RA) , “If Al-Ma’idah #3 was revealed to Jews, the Jews would have celebrated Eid that day.” Omar (RA) said to them,” I know that it was revealed to Mohammad (SAS) on day of Urfa in Arafat. It was also Friday. Hence the Muslims had double Eid celebration that day. (Bukhari and Muslim )