A GRAND VICTORY (6H)
During the 6th Hijra a treaty was made between the idolators of Makkah and Prophet Mohammad (SAS) at a place called Hudaibia ((حديبية which lies outside the city of Makkah. This location is now called Shameesa (شميسه). Many terms of this treaty appeared to be degrading for the Muslims and confused some companions of the Prophet (SAS). It, however, turned out to be an extraordinary victory for the Muslims and it proved grand wisdom and far sightedness of the Prophet (SAS). It also proved the followings.
1. Enemies of Allah (SWT) plan and Allah (SWT) plans. Allah (SWT) is, indeed, the best planner. Al-Anfal # 30.
They were plotting and Allah (SWT) too was plotting and Allah is the best of those who plot.
2. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) never said anything about religious matter except what was reveled to him from Allah (SWT). An-Najm # 3-4
Prophet Mohammad (SAS) does not speak of (his own) desire. It is only a revelation revealed.
3. Allah (SWT) has great respect for the companions of the Prophet (SAS) since he knew their sincerity and what was in their hearts. Allah (SWT) infused calmness and tranquility in their hearts in critical and somewhat confusing moments and made them adhere to a decent behavior even in critical junctures. Allah (SWT) highly valued their qualities and gave a verdict about them for all the coming generations. Al-Fath #26:
“And they were well entitled to it and worthy of it”
I am surprised how some people dare to say unbecoming things about some of the companions of the Prophet (SAS) when Allah (SWT) praised them in Qur’an so eloquently.
Let us now follow the chain of evens which took place at that time. The idolaters of Makkah had turned out the Prophet (SAS) and his companions from their homes in Makkah simply because they worshipped one God. The idolaters also waged three major wars ( Bader, Uhad and Ahzab) with the believers to wipe them out from the surface of the earth. In the meanwhile, the Prophet (SAS) saw a dream that the Prophet (SAS) and his companions were in Makkah performing an Umra. However, no specific time was mentioned about this Umra. The Prophet (SAS) told this dream to his companions in Madina. Since the dreams of the Prophets (SAS) are always true, the Prophet (SAS) announced to set out for Umra. He even invited the villagers around Madina to join him. Most of the villagers declined stating that the Prophet (SAS) intended to pitch a fight between them and the powerful Quraish of Makkah and he intended to drive them into a destruction. Al-Fateh # 12:
The villagers (hypocrites) thought that the Prophet (SAS) and his companions will never return to their homes. This idea had settled down in their hearts and they had other similar evil thoughts. They felt that the Prophet (SAS) and his companions are definitely heading into destruction.
The Prophet (SAS) started his journey from Madina to Makkah for Umra with about 1400 companions. They put Umra dress (Ihram) and took their animals for sacrifice with them. When they reached the outer skirts of Makkah, they found the idolaters with arms to stop them entering Makkah. For example, Khalid bin Waleed (who was a disbeliever at that time) had his troops ready to attack the Muslims and had occupied the area with water.
The Prophet (SAS) moved away from Khalid bin Waleed to an area with no water. The Prophet (SAS) came across a well with some traces of water at the bottom. The Prophet (SAS) threw some water from his mouth into the well and asked to fix one of his arrows in the well. The companions saw the water rising in the well and it reached its brim. The Muslims filled their containers with water and offered Dhuar salat. Khalid bin Waleed خليد بن وليد)) said to his soldiers,”We missed a golden opportunity. We should have attacked the Muslims while they were busy praying. We will get them during next salat. ” In the meanwhile, Allah (SWT) sent a revelation to guide the Muslims how to offer salat in dangerous situation like war. It is called Salat-ul-Khauf (صلاة الخوف)
RESPECT FOR USMAN (RA)
Usman (RA) (عثمان) was respected a great deal by the believers and the disbelievers. The Prophet (SAS) sent him to Makkah as his ambassader to explain the leaders of Quraish that we have come to do Amra and not to fight with them. The Quraish had decided not to let the Muslims enter Makkah at all. They, however , allowed Usman (RA) (عثمان) to make his Umra. Usman (RA) said,” I will not make Umra unless the Prophet (SAS) does.” The Quraish appointed fifty soldiers very close to the Muslims so that they attacked the Prophet (SAS) suddenly as soon an opportunity arises. However, Muhammad bin Muslima (RA), the security guard of the Prophet (SAS), captured all of them and brought them to the Prophet (SAS). When Quraish learnt this, they held Usman (RA) (عثمان) as hostage along with ten other Muslims, who had made their way into Makkah. A very tense situation was created. Each side could have easily killed their hostages. Some rumors said that Usman (RA) (عثمان) and other ten Muslims were killed by the idolaters.
BAIT-UR-RIDWAN (A PLEDGE)
On hearing this news the Prophet (SAS) gathered all the Muslims under a tree and took a pledge from them for fighting with the idolater. Every Muslim made the pledge by putting his hand over the Prophet’s (SAS) hand one by one. Finally the Prophet (SAS) put his hand on his other hand stating that this is the hand of Usman (RA) and in this way made pledge on behalf of Usman (RA).
This is another unique honor for Usman (RA), that the Prophet (SAS) called his hand, the hand of Usman (RA). In the meanwhile Usman (RA) came back and he also made pledge personally. Allah (SWT) loved this pledge by the companions, Al-Fath #18.
Indeed, Allah was pleased with the believers when they gave the pledge to you under the tree. He Knew what was in their hearts and He sent down calmness and tranquility upon them, and he rewarded them with a near victory.
The participants of Bait-ur-Ridwan are held in great esteem by Allah(SWT) and His Prophet (SAS). It is narrated by Jaber (RA) that the Prophet (SAS) said, “You are the best of all people living on the earth.” أنتم خير أهل الأ رض (Sahihain)
Umm Bashar (RUA) أم البشر narrated that the Prophet (SAS) said, “Those who made pledge under this tree will not go to hell.” (Muslim)
Hence there in glad tiding of Paradise for the participants of this pledge just like there is a promise of Paradise by Allah (SWT) for the participants of Battle of Badr.
HELP OF ALLAH (SWT)
Allah (SWT) infused fear in the hearts of Quraish. They sent three leaders Suhail bin Amr (سهيل بن عمر), Hawaitab (حويطب) and Makraz (مكرز) to negotiate with the Prophet (SAS). Three leaders said to the Prophet (SAS), “Usman (RA) and other ten Muslims are not killed. We will hand them over to you if you return our fifty soldiers.” Hence, Allah (SWT) saved both sides hurting earth other. Al-Fath # 24:
He it is Who has withheld their hands from you and your hands from them in the midest of Makkah. After He had made you victor over them. In addition, Allah is Ever the All- Seer of what you do.
The visiting leaders of Quraish also observed some extraordinary scenes of love, respect, devotion of the believers for their Prophet (SAS). On return to Makkah the leaders of Quraish advised their people that the best thing for us is to make a truce with Mohammad (SAS) for our face saving. If the Muslims enter Makkah forcefully, all Arabs will laugh at us. We should ask them to go back to Madina without Amra now. They may, however, perform Umra next year and stay in Makkah for three days. The Quraish accepted this advice of their leaders and they assigned Suhail bin Amr to go back to the Prophet (SAS) and make a written agreement with above terms and conditions. Suhail proposed the following terms of the treaty.
PROPOSED TERMS OF THE TREATY OF HUDAIBIA
- The Prophet (SAS) and his companions will not enter Makkah this year. They may visit Makkah next year for three days.
- The two sides will not fight with each other for ten years.
- All other tribes have the freedom to join Muslims group or Quraish group as their friend.
- If a man from Quraish runs away and joins the Prophet (SAS), the Prophet (SAS) will return the person to Quraish. However, if a man runs away from Mohammad (SAS) and seeks refuge with Quraish, the Quraish will not return this man to the Prophet (SAS).
SOME TOUCHY MOMENTS
The Prophet (SAS) and Suhail bin Amr agreed about above terms after heated discussion between the two parties. The Prophet (SAS) called Ali (RA) and started giving him dictation to put down the following in writing.
The Prophet (SAS) said to Ali (RA), “Write Bismillah Hir Rahma Ner Rahimبسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ” Suhail objected and said, “We don’t know Al-Rahman and Al-Rahim. You should write بسمك اللهم i.e. O Allah, we start with your name.” The Prophet (SAS) asked Ali (RA) to write down as Suhail said. The Prophet (SAS) ask Ali to write, “This is an agreement between Mohammad, the Prophet of Allah and Quraish”. Suhail said, “If we accept you as Prophet of Allah, we would not have stopped you from Amra nor we would have waged wars with you. You better write Muhammad bin Abdullah.” On listening this the Prophet (SAS) said to Ali (RA), “Write what Suhail said and erase the wording Prophet (SAS) of Allah (رسول الله). Ali (RA) did not erase it. Usaid bin Hudhair (RA) and Saad bin Ibada (RA) also got hold of the hand of Ali (RA) and said to Ali (RA), ” Do not erase this. If Quraish do not agree then only swords will decide between us.”
The Prophet (SAS) was illiterate and never wrote anything by his hand. The Prophet (SAS) took away the paper from the Ali (RA). Allah (SWT) gave the Prophet (SAS) the ability to write and he replaced that wording with Muhammad bin Abdullah as desired by Suhail. The believers were very upset with this but submitted to the choice of the Prophet (SAS) in this critical moment.
Now the Prophet (SAS) asked Suhail to let them go around Kabah this year. Suhail refused flatly stating that the Arabs will laugh at us considering us weaker than you.
The Muslims, specially Umar (RA), raised loud objection to term #4 of the treaty but the Prophet (SAS) even accepted this term.
TESTS FOR THE COMPANIONS
When Quraish refused to include Bismillah (بسم الله) and Rasulullah (رسول الله), it was very likely that the companions start quarreling among themselves due to conflicting views. But they calmed down and accepted the choices made by the Prophet (SAS). This shows their total submission to the Prophet (SAS) . When the Prophet (SAS) took pledge from them for fighting, they did it whole heartedly. When the Prophet (SAS) made above choices to avoid fighting, the companions again submitted to the will and choice of the Prophet (SAS). Allah (SWT) loved their obedience to the Prophet (SAS). Al-Fath #26.
When those who disbelieve had put in their hearts pride and haughtiness, the pride and haughtiness of time of ignorance, then Allah sent down His calmness and tranquility upon his messenger and upon the believers, and made them stick to the word of piety, and they were well entitled to it and worthy of it. And Allah is the All-Knower of everything.
INSTANT TEST OF TREATY
Abu Jundal (RA) (أبو جندل), son of Suhail bin Amr, had accepted Islam in Makkah. His father put him in a prison in Makkah and tortured him daily. Abu Jundal (RA) some how fled from Makkah and arrived where the treaty was being written. He humbly sought refuge from the Prophet (SAS). Suhail objected. He said, ” It is against the terms of this treaty. If you do not give him back to me, I shall not sign the treaty.” The Prophet (SAS) asked Suhail again and again to allow Abu Jundal (RA) to stay with the Muslims. Suhail refused and he slapped on the face of Abu Jundal. Suhail grabbed his son’s shirt and pulled him towards the side of idolaters. The Prophet (SAS) said to Abu Jundal, ” Be patient.Allah will soon make things easy for you and for other weak Muslims in Makkah. We have made a treaty with Quraish. We do not like to break our promise.”
Finally the treaty was signed. The Prophet (SAS) slaughtered his animal and removed his Ihram. The companions did the same and started journey towards Madina after about nineteen days stay in Hudaibia.
When the Muslims reached Esfan on their way to Madina very little food provisions were left. The Prophet (SAS) spread a large sheet on the ground and asked his companions to deposit on that sheet whatever little they had. When left overs were deposited, the Prophet (SAS) made a supplication and then invited every body to eat from this sheet. One thousand four hundred companions ate to their fill and also filled their food containers for the remaining journey. There was still lot of food left on the sheet.The Prophet (SAS) was very glad to see this Blessing of Allah (SWT).
THE FRUITS OF THIS TREATY
This treaty had very many far-reaching consequences.
1. Due to this peace treaty the Muslims were able to concentrate on propagation of Islam far and wide. The Prophet (SAS) sent letters to King Najashi of Habsha, Kind Maqoqas (مقوقس) of Egypt, Khusro of Persia, Qaisar of Rome, Ruler of Behrain, Ruler of Yamama, Ruler of Damascus and Ruler of Amman.
2. So far Quraish were bent upon totally destroying the Muslims. By making this peace treaty meant that, in their hearts, they accepted the superiority of the Muslim power.
3. All Arabs were free to send delegations to the Muslims. This was a defeat of Quraish since they were blocking spreading of Islam to Arab tribes.
4. During the process of negotiation of treaty many prominent Quraish leaders met the Prophet (SAS). It implanted Islamic values in their hearts and many of them embraced Islam in due course of time including Suhail bin Amr.
5. Quraish were so far determined not to let the Muslims enter Makkah at any time. By making this treaty they cancelled this restriction and suffered an internal defeat.
6. This treaty paved way for the conquest of Makkah which took place about twenty one months after this treaty. Allah (SWT) announced Al-Fath #1
Verily we gave you (O, Mohammad (SAS)) a clear-cut and grand victory.
7. Many delegations visited Madina and very large number of people embraced Islam.For example twenty months after this treaty (at the time of Conquest of Makkah) Muslim army consisted of ten thousand soldiers as compared with fourteen hundred at the time of Hudaibia.
8. Surah Al-Fath was revealed. There were not only predictions for many conquests and capturing of large booty but it was announced that Islam will over power all other religions Al-Fath #28 :
He it is Who has sent his Messenger with guidance and religion of truth (Islam), that he may make it (Islam) superior to all religions. And All-Sufficient is Allah as a Witness.
9. It is interesting to note that Allah (SWT) said in Al- Fath #29. i.e. Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah. Hence erasing Rasulullah in the treaty did not matter. The above verse #29 will be recited till the Day of Judgment and will be sufficient proof that Mohammad is the Messenger of Allah.
10. The missed Umra was performed next year. It proved that the Prophet’s (SAS) dream was true. In that dream no specific time was mentioned. Al-Fath #27.
Indeed Allah shall fulfill the true vision which He showed to His Messenger. Certainly you will enter Masjid-Al-Haram, if Allah wills, secure (some) having your heads shaved, and (some) having your head hair cut short, having no fear. He knew what you knew not, and He granted beside that a near victory (i.e Khaiber).
Note that here even Allah (SWT) used word (إن شاء الله) InshaAllah although He knows everything, to teach us a lesson to use it in our statements, Similar instructions are given in Surah Al-Kahf, Surah Al-Qalam and Surah As-Saffat.
11. The process of this peace pact increased the level of Iman (Faith) of companions. Iman means submission to Allah (SWT) and His Prophet (SAS). The companion demonstrated this submission even they liked something or not. Al- Fath #4
He it is Who sent down calmness into the hearts of the believers, that they may grow in faith along with their (present) faith.
Hence Allah (SWT) loves the companions of the Prophet (SAS).