1. Sacred Garden
Sacred Garden (Rawdah-tul-Jannah) is the area between the Prophet’s chamber and the pulpit of the Mosque. It is described in Bukhari and Muslim and narrated by Abu-Hurrairah (RU) that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said, “The area between my house and the pulpit is one of the gardens of paradise. My pulpit will be on the Haud-al-Kausar.”
The scholars have explained this Hadith as follows. The remembrance of Allah (SWT) in this area brings the blessings of Allah (SWT) in abundance just like it happens in garden of paradise. It was more so during the lifetime of the Prophet (SAS).
This Hadith may also mean that various forms of worship of Allah (SWT) in this area make you a good candidate for paradise.
Another meaning is that this area is a small garden of paradise and it will be transferred to paradise on the day of judgement.
Samhoudi and Ibn Najjar prefer the last explanation. Imam Malik also prefers the last explanation and said “ It is a small garden of paradise which will be transferred to paradise and it will not be destroyed like rest of the earth.”
Samhoudi measured the distance between the Sacred Chamber and pulpit and it was 26.5 meters. Some of it is now inside the outer most walls of the Sacred Chamber. Now the length of this area is 22 meters and width is 15 meters.
During the period of Saleem Khan bin Sultan Abdul Hameed Khan, white stone was placed on the columns of this Sacred Garden up to their half height. In this way the boundaries of this area were clearly marked as stated by Burzanji.
This work on columns was renewed during the Turkish Period. The stones were polished and gold was put on them. In 1404H, it was observed that these stones needed repairs. Hence the Saudi Government fixed new white stones on these columns.
Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to lean against the trunk of a tree in the Prophet’s Mosque during his sermon. Companions made a pulpit for him to deliver his address since it was very hard on him to keep standing for a long time during his sermon. This pulpit was placed west of Prophet’s praying spot to lead congregational salat. The pulpit is still at the same spot.
Bukhari mentioned this as narrated by Jaber (RU) “Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to lean against a trunk of a tree during Juma address. Ansar humbly suggested to him, “If you approve, we can make a pulpit for you.” The Prophet (SAS) approved it and a pulpit was made. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) sat on this pulpit to make an address. The companions heard the trunk of the tree crying like a child. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) stepped down the pulpit and hugged the trunk of this tree. The trunk calmed down after sobbing like a pregnant she camel.” Jaber (RU) added, “The tree was crying since it was deprived of the remembrance of Allah (SWT) made close to it.”1
Historical background of the pulpit.
During 8H, a wooden pulpit was made consisting of three rungs. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to sit on the third rung and place his feet on the second rung. Caliph Abu Bakr (RU) used to sit on second rung and place his feet on the first rung. Caliph Omar (RU) used to sit on the first rung and place his feet on the ground. Caliph Uthman (RU) did like Omar (RU) for six years. Later on he used to sit where Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to sit.
Then Amir Moawiyah made a pulpit consisting of nine rungs. The leaders started sitting on the seventh rung .The pulpit has since been kept in this form and the Khateeb has been sitting on the seventh rung since that time.
In 654H, (1256 C) the pulpit was burnt during the fire in Prophet’s Mosque.
In 656H, Al Muzahar, ruler of Yemen, sent a pulpit which was used for ten years.
In 666H, Al Zahir Baibarus of Egypt sent a pulpit, as a replacement.
In 797H, Al Zahir Barquq sent a replacement.
In 820H, Al Muayid sent another replacement.
In 886H, It burnt during the second fire in the Prophet’s Mosque.
The people of Madina built a pulpit of bricks. It was finished with white paint.
In 888H, Al Ashraf Qaitabai sent a marble pulpit which replaced the brick pulpit.
In 998H, Sultan Murad Third of Ottoman Empire sent a pulpit of marble, which is still extremely beautiful. Qaitabai’s pulpit was sent to Quba Mosque and Sultan Murad’s pulpit was put in Prophet’s Mosque. Both can be seen in these Mosques even today.
The pulpit sent by Sultan Murad has many outstanding features. It is made of very expensive marble with gold work on it. There is a very attractive small dome on top of it, which is also resting on tiny marble feet. Its door is very decorative and has golden ornamentation on it. It consists of twelve rungs. Three of these rungs are outside the door and nine of them are inside the door. The Saudi Government has put more gold polish on the pulpit. There is some poetry written above the door of the pulpit.
The translation of this poetry is as follows:
“Sultan Murad bin Saleem sent this to be rewarded on the day of judgement. May his kingdom be high for ever. The best of cities be under his peaceful control. For the garden of Prophet Mohammad (SAS). May Allah’s (SWT) more Graces and Honors be bestowed upon him since all people received guidance through him. This pulpit is built with full sincerity to seek guidance and blessing. May lot of guidance be imparted from the top of this pulpit to those who seek this guidance. Sa’ad composed these verses and the pulpit was made by Sultan Murad in 997H.”
Distinction of the pulpit
Abu Hurairah (RU) narrated that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said, “The area between my house and pulpit is a small garden of paradise and the pulpit will be on Haud Kausar (kausar pond) on the day of judgement.”2
Ibn Najjar said, “The pulpit will be exactly in this form placed on Haud Kausar and it will be reborn just like all other creatures of Allah (SWT) will be reborn on the day of judgement.
Ibn Hajar also agrees with this explanation of the above Hadith.
Khattabi said, “It means that the presence at the Haud Kausar will be in accordance with the good deeds done near the pulpit.
Imam Ahmad has described as narrated by Sahl bin Sa’ad (RU)
that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said, “My pulpit is a taraa of paradise.” Sahl bin Sa’ad said that taraa means door. Some other scholars said taraa means a garden in a raised platform. Still others said that taraa means a step.
Nasai has described as narrated by Umm Salama (RU) that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said, “The feet of my pulpit will be steps of ladder for the Paradise.”3
Oath near the pulpit
Rights of Allah (SWT) and rights of people are very important in Islam. It is permissible in Islam to swear at certain occasions. Making a false oath is totally forbidden since it deprives others of their rights. Hence making a false oath is punished but this punishment becomes more severe if such oath took place near the pulpit of Prophet’s Mosque.
Ibn Sa’ad narrated in Tabkat that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said “It is permissible to make an oath near my pulpit.”4
It is narrated by Jaber bin Abdullah (RU) that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said: “A person who makes a false oath near my pulpit for even a green branch of tree used as a tooth brush, will go to hell.”5
Hannana column is at the site of the trunk of a palm tree against which Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to lean during his sermon. A Hadith as mentioned in Bukhari and narrated by Jaber (RU) is given above.
Obi bin Kaab (RU) also narrated that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to stand near a column during his sermon. One person asked Prophet Mohammad (SAS) “With your permission, we can make a pulpit for you to deliver your sermon. In this way more people will be able to see you.” Prophet Mohammad (SAS) agreed. Pulpit of three rungs was built and placed where the present pulpit is.
On Friday, when the Prophet (SAS) sat on the pulpit leaving the trunk of tree behind him, the tree started crying bitterly. It appeared as if it would burst with this agony. Prophet (SAS) stepped down from the pulpit and touched the tree with his hand. The tree calmed down. Prophet (SAS) again rose on the pulpit for the sermon. He, however, used to offer salat near the tree. It is stated that during the expansion of the Mosque, Obi bin Kaab took this tree to his home where it decayed in due course of time.6
Hassan Basri used to cry when he described these narrations. He said, “O you believers, this piece of wood used to cry for the love of Prophet Mohammad (SAS). You should display more enthusism and love to meet the Prophet (SAS) on the day of judgement.”
Baihaqi said that crying of this tree indicates that sometimes Allah (SWT) gives senses to vegetation similar to animals or like human beings.
Imam Shafi said, “The miracles given to Prophet Mohammad (SAS) were not given to any other Prophet”. A person said to Imam Shafi, “Isa (AS) was given the miracle of making dead persons alive” Imam Shafi replied, “Prophet Mohammad (SAS) was given a miracle where a tree cried. Crying of a dead tree is a bigger miracle indeed.”
Why it is called perfume column? A kind of perfume (Khalooq perfume) was put on this column and hence it is called Mukhallaqa Column. It is written on it in Arabic Hazehi Ustawana Al-Mukhallaka . Ibn Najjar said that Mukhallaqa Column is at the spot of Hannana Column.
This Column is also called Mus-haf Column since it is narrated by Malik bin Anas that Hajjaj sent copies of the Quran to many big cities. The copy sent to Madina was in a box and it was placed to the right of this Column.
The Distinction of the Perfume Column
It is a landmark in the Prophet’s Mosque since Prophet used it for his support and offered his obligatory salat near it. It is described in Bukhari and Muslim as narrated by Yazeed bin Abi Obaid
I used to accompany Salama bin Akwa (RU)
and I observed that he always prayed near this column. I asked him, “Why do you try to offer your Salat near this column?” He said, “I saw Prophet Mohammad (SAS) praying at this location.”7 It is described in Muslim that Salama bin Akwa (RU) always offered his voluntary salat near this column.
Someone asked Imam Malik, “Where would you like to offer your salat in Prophet’s Mosque?” He said, “Voluntary salat at Prophet’s praying spot. (i.e. near Perfume Column) and obligatory salat in the first row.” (Vifa-ul-Vifa)
Burial of the Tree
There are conflicting narrations about the burial of this tree. Ibn Abi Zanad said, “The tree stood there during the periods of the Prophet (SAS), Caliph Abu Bakr (RU) and caliph Omar (RU).”
What happened to the tree when caliph Osman (RU) expanded the Mosque? Some people said that Obi bin Kaab (RU) took it to his home where it decayed in due course of time. Other people said that it was buried at the same spot. Some others said that it was buried under the pulpit. A few even mentioned that it was buried on the right or on the left of the pulpit. Only Allah (SWT) knows the truth in it.
This column is in the Sacred Garden. It is third from the Sacred Chamber and third from the pulpit. It is written on it (Hazehi Ustawana Aisha). The emigrants from Makkah used to gather here. Hence it is also called Column of Al Muhajireen.
Tabarani has described in his book “Al-Awsat,” Aisha narrated that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said, “There is a spot in my mosque of great significance. If people become aware of this significance, they would crowd over there and they would have to draw lots to find room for offering salat there”. Some companions asked Aisha, “Where is this spot?” She declined to disclose it. The companions dispersed from there leaving her nephew Abdulla bin Zubair (RU) with her. Companions noticed that Abdullah bin Zubair (RU) was offering his salat at the location of Aisha Column. It was believed that she had told her nephew secretly about this spot. It is sometimes called lottery column.8
Prophet Mohammad (SAS) led obligatory salat from this spot several times after change of Qibla direction from al-Aqsa Mosque to the Kabah. Caliph Abu Bakr (RU), Caliph Omar (RU), Zubair (RU), Abdullah bin Zubair and Amer bin Abdullah also used to pray at this spot. It is an important spot for acceptance of your supplications.
Abu Lubabah Column
It is second from the Sacred Chamber and fourth from the pulpit. It is written on it (Hazehi Ustawana AbiLubabah). It is also called repentance column since the repentance of Abu Lubabah was accepted by Allah (SWT) at this spot. It is narrated by Mohammad bin Kaab (RU) that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to offer his voluntary salat here as well.
Story of Abu Lubabah is described in Tafseer Ibn Kathir. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) surrounded Jewish tribe Bani Quraiza because of their treachery. Banu Quraiza fortified themselves on the out skirts of Madina. The conflict lasted for twenty-one days, until the provisions of enemies were totally used up. This tribe asked Prophet Mohammad (SAS) for the permission to go to Syria. The Prophet Mohammad (SAS) told them that they should accept any decision by Sa’ad bin Muaz (RU) as a mediator. The Jews requested that Sa’ad (RU) be replaced by Abu Lubaba (RU). Abu Lubabah (RU) had his family members and real estate property in this Jewish neighborhood and Jews expected him to be kinder to them. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) granted their request. When Abu Lubabah (RU) reached this tribe, they asked him, “What will be our fate if we just come out of this fort?” Abu Lubabah said, putting his finger on his throat, that their heads will be chopped off. This was in fact, the secret of Prophet Mohammad (SAS) with Abu Lubabah (RU). As soon as Abu Lubabah (RU) left these people he realized his mistake and felt very bad. He tied himself with a column in Prophet’s mosque and this went on for seven days and seven nights. He declared that he would not untie himself till his repentance was accepted. He hardly ate anything during this time and passed out again and again. When Prophet Mohammad (SAS) learnt about it, he said, “He could have come directly to me and I would have prayed for his forgiveness. Now he has left the whole matter with Allah (SWT). He should wait till Allah (SWT) accepts his repentance directly.” After seven days the Prophet (SAS) received the revelation at dawn time. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) was at that time with his wife Umm Salma . She saw Prophet smiling at dawn. She asked, “What made you smile, dear Prophet?” He said, “Abu Lubaba’s (RU) repentance is accepted.” She asked, “May I give him the good tiding?” He said, “Why not, if it pleases you.” Umm Salma (RUA) stood at the door of her cottage and said, “O Abu Lubabah, congratulations, your repentance is accepted.” (It was before the regulation for veil was enacted). Umm Salma (RUA) added, “Several people rushed to untie him”.Abu Lubabah (RU) refused and said, “I shall wait till Prophet Mohammad (SAS) very kindly unties me with his own hand.” Prophet Mohammad (SAS) untied him at the time of Sala-tul-Fajr.
This shows that breaking a trust was a very serious matter with the companions and they adopted such drastic measures to rectify a mistake.
The Bed Column
It is located on the outermost western wall of the Sacred Chamber. It is just east of the repentance column. It is written on it (Hazehi Ustawana Us Sareer). As narrated by Abdullah bin Omar (RU), Prophet (SAS) used to have his bed at this location during Itakaf. That is why it is called bed column. Imam Malik chose to sit here in Prophet’s Mosque since Prophet Mohammad (SAS) and Caliph Omar (RU) used to have their beds at this spot during Itakaf.
The Guard Column
It is also on the outermost western wall of the Sacred Chamber. It is just north of the Bed Column. It is written on it (Hazehi Ustawana Al Hars). It is so called since the security guard for the Prophet (SAS) used to stand here. The door of Aisha’s (RUA) cottage used to open here and Prophet (SAS) used to enter the Sacred Garden from this door. Caliph Ali (RU) also served as a security guard for the Prophet (SAS) and Caliph Ali (RU) used to offer his salat at this spot. Many dignitaries of Madina used to pray here as well.
As described by Hakam, Aisha (RUA) said “Here the security guard for the Prophet (SAS) was stationed till the following verse was revealed:
Allah (SWT) will protect you against all the people.
Prophet (SAS) removed the security guard stating that Allah (SWT) will protect him.
Abu Saeed Khudri (RU) also narrated that Abbas (RU) used to be one of the security guards. Prophet (SAS) removed the security guard when the above verse was revealed.
It is also on the outermost western wall of the Sacred Chamber. It is just north of the bed column. It is written on it (Hazehi Ustawana Al Vafood). Prophet (SAS) used to sit here to receive various delegates. The prominent companions also used to sit at this location.
Burzanji said, “The bed column, the guard column and the delegate column used to be somewhat inside the Sacred Chamber. In 888 H, this wall of the Sacred Chamber was rebuilt during the period of Qaitabai. Half of each column was built outside the wall to mark their locations.
Grave Square Column
It is just behind the Delegate Column. This column is on the northwestern corner of Aisha’s hut and cannot be seen from the outer metallic enclosure. Since the sacred grave is in Aisha’s hut and this hut is nearly square, this column is known as Grave’s Square Column. The spot of this column is also known as Maqam Jibreel. Samhoudi said, “I could not find anything else about this spot except that Ibn Jubair wrote that a cover is placed on this column and it was where Jibreel (AS) used to come.”9 It will not be out of place to mention here that many people think that Maqam Jibreel is just inside the present Bab Baqee. With this in mind they make long supplications at this location after salutation to Prophet Mohammad (SAS) and his two caliphs. I could not find anything in support of this thinking.
The Distinctions of Columns in Prophet’s Mosque
The companions of Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to hurry towards these columns. Bukhari has described as narrated by Anas (RU) that Anas (RU) used to see the prominent companions rushing towards these columns during salat-ul-maghreb. Omar (RU) said, “There is more right of those who are offering salat than those who are merely engaged in a conversation to make use of these columns.” Ibn Hajar said, “People used the columns as ‘sutra’ during the salat. Hence such persons have more right over these columns.” Ibn Najjar said, “All columns of the Prophet’s Mosque are important, since various companions offered salat there. It is, therefore, a very good idea to offer salat near these columns.
The columns were made of trunks of palm trees during the period of Prophet Mohammad (SAS). The position of these columns was never changed during the reconstruction of the mosque. One builder, Salah Affandi, wished to change their positions during the Turkish expansion of the mosque. Some scholars objected and sent their reasoning to the king. They mentioned that there were many important events associated with them. The importance of some of them is mentioned in Hadith. Some of these columns remind us of some companions of Prophet Mohammad (SAS). Allah (SWT) more readily accepts the supplication near some of these columns.
In light of the above arguments, the king ordered to keep the columns where they were at the time of Prophet Mohammad (SAS). Hence all these columns are at their original sites.10
The praying spot for Prophet Mohammad (SAS) before change of Qiblah
Prophet Mohammad (SAS) prayed for about sixteen months facing towards Al-Quds on his arrival in Madina. If you walk away from Aisha column, leaving it towards your back, the fifth column will be in line with the door marked as Bab Jibreel. This fifth column is the praying spot for the Prophet for the above period. This spot was near the extreme north boundary of the original mosque.
When Allah (SWT) revealed the verse Al-Baqarah # 149
Turn your face towards Masjid-ul-Haram. Prophet turned his face towards Kabah during the salat. Kabah happens to be south of this mosque. Prophet offered salat near Aisha’s column for a few days while facing towards Kabah. Later he started leading salat at the spot where there is Mehrab Nabawi nowadays. Note that there was no mehrab at this spot during the period of the Prophet and his four Caliphs.
In 91H, Omar bin Abdul Aziz made this praying nitch in the form of a mehrab. Since then it is called Mehrab Nabawi. If you stand in the mehrab for offering a salat, your place of sajda will be where Prophet’s feet used to be. Prophet’s place of sajda is intentionally covered by a thick wall of this mehrab.
In 888H, Sultan Qaitabai rebuilt this mehrab in the present form as indicated by the following writing inscribed at the back of this mehrab in Arabic.Its translation is as follows:
In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious,the Most Merciful.May Allah bless Prophet Mohammad (SAS).Sultan Abu An Nasar Qaitabai reconstructed this mehrab of the Prophet Mosque during 888 Hijrah
In 1404H, Kind Fahd bin Abdul Aziz renovated this mehrab and added the following three lines at the back of the mehrab to mark this event.
King Fahad bin Abdul Aziz renovated this mehrab during 1404H
This Mehrab is in the northern wall of the Sacred Chamber. Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to offer salat-ul-tahajjud here from time to time. Isa bin Abdullah (RU) narrated that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to spread his mat here after visitors departed from him at night. Isa (RU) also saw Ali (RU) praying at this spot at night.11 There is a raised small platform built in front of this Mehrab now. You will find this platform on your left side if you entered Prophet’s Mosque from Bab Jibreel. Another bigger platform, which was originally built for security and service personnel, lies on your right side. By the way, the platform for security personnel is erroneously called Maqam Suffah.
Saad bin Abdullah bin Fadeel said that one day I was praying near Tahajjud Mehrab and Mohammad bin Ali bin Hanifa happened to pass from there. He asked me, “Did you receive any narration about this spot?” I replied in the negative. He said, “You should continue praying here since Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to offer Tahajjud here.”12
Ibn Najjar said, “This Mehrab was at the back of Fatima’s hut.”13 It shows that there was a mehrab at that spot at the time of
Ibn Najjar who died in 643H.
Isa bin Abdullah said, “When visitors used to depart at night, Prophet Mohammad (SAS) used to spread a mat behind Ali’s (RU) hut and used to offer voluntary salat there. One day one person saw him offering voluntary salat at this spot during the month of Ramadhan. This person also started offering voluntary salat at this spot. Another person happened to pass this way and he started his salat also. A third person followed these two persons. By and by a large number of people gathered there. When Prophet Mohammad (SAS) saw many people he wrapped up his praying mat and went away. When these people met Prophet (SAS) in the morning, they said, “We were only trying to follow you in offering voluntary salat at night.” Prophet (SAS) said, “ I was concerned about you very much. My concern was that Allah (SWT) may make the offering of night salat during Ramadhan obligatory for you and you may fail to keep up with it.”14
Sakhavi also mentioned Mehrab Tahajjud and said that it was in the northern wall of the Sacred Chamber and it happened to be in the vicinity of Bab Jibreel.15
Renovation of Mehrab Tahajjud
Samhoudi said that it was renovated in 888H. during the period of Qaitabai. It was again renovated during Turkish extension of the mosque. It was beautified with red stone. The Quranic verse about Tahajjud was written in it in gold. A platform was built in front of it. This platform was enclosed by beautiful brass railing.16 This mehrab still exists but a book case with copies of the Quran is fully covering it.
It is in the southern most wall of the Prophet’s Mosque. It is still in the same place where Caliph Osman (RU) used to lead the salat. Caliph Osman (RU) built a security enclosure there to save himself from a physical attack as was done to Caliph Omar during the salat.
In 91H, Omar bin Abdul Aziz renovated the mosque and constructed a Mehrab at this place. It came to be known as Mehrab Usmani. At present the Imam leads salat from this spot.
This mehrab is in line with Mehrab Nabawi but on the west side of the Pulpit. This is how it came into being. For a while the salat in Prophet’s Mosque was led by a Maliki Imam. Later on, with the support of king of Egypt, Shafi Imam was appointed. The Shafi Imam used to lead Fajr salat in more darkness than Maliki Imam. Other salats were first offered by Maliki Imam and then by Shafi Imam. Due to these circumstances, the Hanafis of Madina constructed this mehrab and appointed a Hanafi Imam.
Samhoudi wrote that the Hanafi Imam used to lead salat in this mehrab after the salat of Shafi Imam. They, however used to join together in Taraveeh salat. Burzanji said that the salat was offered in this way till the thirteenth century.
Ali bin Musa wrote that in 1303H, the first and the largest group for salat used to be Hanafi and the last one was that of Shafi school of thought. However, salat-ul-fajr was first offered by Shafi Imam, then by Maliki and then by Hanafi Imam. Each made Iqama according to his own school of thought. There is now only one congregational prayer led by a Imam of Hambali school of thought. This has been so since the take over by the Saudi Government.
Renovation of Mehrab Hanafi.
In 908H, Sultan Sulaiman Khan renovated the mehrab and decorated it with white and black stones. It is written at the back of this mehrab in Arabic.Its translation is as follows:
Sultan Sulaiman Khan Turki renovated this merhab during 908H
Some authors misunderstand it and mentioned that Sultan Sulaiman Khan constructed it. In fact he only renovated it.
Finally King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz renovated it again, decorated it with colorful stones and put gold shine on it.
A few emigrants to Madina found accommodation with the people they knew in Madina. Other emigrants used to stay in Prophet’s Mosque so that they become neighbors of the Prophet (SAS) and may derive benefit from his company and teachings. Prophet (SAS) loved them and honored them by his company. Prophet (SAS) also imparted Islamic education to them and instructed the local Muslims to cooperate with them as much as they could.
In the year of second Hijra when Qiblah was changed from
Al-Quds to Kabah, Prophet (SAS) covered the northern most part of the mosque by an ordinary roof. This site came to be known as Suffah since Suffah means shaded area. The residents of this area came to be known as Ah-li-Suffah. If you walk northward from Aisha Column, the fifth column is the site of Suffah.
It was like an open air residential university and the number of residents varied from time to time. Ibn Hajar said, “Suffah was a covered area at the back side of the mosque.” Ibn Tamiya said, “The total residents of Suffah were six to seven hundred but that many were not there at one time. Their average number was seventy.”17
More detail about Suffah and its residents is given in the other book of the author called ‘Houses of the Companions’.
1. Bukhari 55:3585
2. Bukhari 29:1888; Muslim 15:1391
3. Sunan Nasai
5. Sunan Abu Dawud 16:3246; Sunan Ibn Majjah 13:2325 and 13:2326
6. Ibn Majah 5:1414
7. Bukhari 8:502; Muslim 4:509
8. Al-Awsat, Tabarani 866
9. Vifa-ul-Vifa 2”580
10. Bukhari 8:502; Fatah Bari V1 p577; Nuzha-tul-Nazreen 36
11. Akhbar Madina-tur-Rasul p76
12. Akhbar Madina-tur-Rasul p76
13. Al-Masdar Sabiq p76,77
14. Vifa-ul-Vifa 2:451
15. Vifa-ul-Vifa 2:452
16. Nuzha-tul-Nazreen p35; Mirat-ul Haramain 1:470
17. Vifa-ul-Vifa V2 p453