Muslims were not allowed to fight during their thirteen years of stay in Makkah even if they were tortured and turned out from their homes. After the migration of Prophet Mohammad (SAS) from Makkah to Medina, he established relations with non-Muslims in the form of agreements and laid down the foundation of the Islamic state.
The Battle of Badr was the first battle in the history of Islam where the enemies were three times than the believers. The Muslim army consisted of 313 persons, 70 camels, 2 horses, and 8 swords. We notice that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) was sharing a camel ride with Abu Lubabah (RU) and Ali (RU) just like others were sharing the rides. The enemy consisted of 1000 well equipped soldiers, 700 camels, and 100 horses.
Let us describe some of the events before the battle, during the battle and after the battle to learn various lessons from this battle.
Before the battle Prophet Mohammad (SAS) was extremely worried and prayed to Allah (SWT) that if these Muslims were defeated there will be hardly any Muslims left to carry the work of Allah (SWT). This scene was described in Surah Al Anfal. # 9,10
When you prayed to Allah (SWT), Allah (SWT) accepted your prayer saying that Allah (SWT) will help you with 1000 angels which will come in succession till the job is done. Allah (SWT) is doing this to give you good tidings and for satisfaction of hearts. Victory comes only from Allah (SWT). Allah is mighty wise.
Allah (SWT) is announcing this help in the form of angels so that Allah (SWT) gives a physical evidence to the believers for the satisfaction of their hearts. Allah is further saying that do not think that this help is from angels. Actually victory and help comes from Allah (SWT) alone Who sent these angels as well.
Angels were ordered to do many things. Allah (SWT) says in verse 12 of Surah Al-Anfal,
When Allah (SWT) ordered the angels saying My help is with you. So make those who believe stand firm. I will throw fear in the hearts of those who disbelieve. Then strike the necks and each finger of the disbelievers.
We learn from this verse that angels not only strengthened the hearts and feet of the believers but they also took part in the battle physically. Abu Dawood Mazani and Suhail Bin Haneef narrated that when we used to point our swords towards the enemy, their necks were chopped off even before our swords had reached them. In fact these angels were doing the job. Verse 50 of Surah Al-Infal further describes this scene.
And If you could see when the angels take away the souls of those disbelieve (at death), they smite their faces and their backs, (saying) “Taste the punishment of the blazing Fire.”
This verse explains that when angels take out the souls of disbelievers from their bodies they punish them by hitting their faces and backs and hit them with heated metallic rods. Allah (SWT) is further saying in Verse 51 of Al-Infal, “This is because of their deeds that they have done themselves. Allah (SWT) in no way intends to be cruel to these people.” Allah (SWT) also says in Verse 14 of Al-Anfal, “Taste this punishment now, and there is a bigger punishment on the day of judgment.” We conclude that Sukratul Maut or the time of death is a very difficult time for disbelievers. They are punished because they oppose Allah (SWT) and His Messenger. And whosoever opposes Allah (SWT) and His Messenger, Allah is very severe in punishment.
There were many other miracles which took place before the Battle. For example, Prophet Mohammad (SAS) saw some dreams before the battle as described in Surah Al-Anfal. # 43
Allah (SWT) showed you enemy a few in number in your dream. If Allah (SWT) had shown you large in number, you would have faltered and quarreled between yourselves in the matter. Allah (SWT)saved you from this disagreement. Allah (SWT) fully knows what is in your hearts.
Although the enemy were large in number Allah (SWT) showed the Prophet Mohammad (SAS) only a few in his dream. If Allah (SWT) had showed the enemy in a large number, Prophet Mohammad (SAS) would have shared this information with his companions and this would have resulted in a major disagreement between them. Disagreements are bad at any time. Disagreement in a battlefield is most disastrous. Allah (SWT) saved the believers from this disaster in a miraculous way.
Similarly, another miracle took place during the battle as Allah (SWT) describes in verse 44 of Al Anfal.
During the battle, the believers saw their enemies a few in number and also enemy saw that the believers are only a few in number. So that Allah (SWT) may conclude a thing that must be done. All deeds are brought back to Allah (SWT)
The believers experienced this miracle in the battlefield. They saw the enemy in few numbers, for their encouragement. However, the wisdom in showing the believers a few in number in the eyes of disbelievers was so that the disbelievers came forward and were punished in the battlefield.
Another interesting event took place during the battle. Satan came in the form of Siraka bin Malek, the leader of Banu Bakr, and joined the disbelievers. Satan made disbelievers’ (evil) deeds seem fair to them and excited the disbelievers by saying, “No body from mankind can defeat you today. I am your helper as well.” When Satan saw two armies confronting each other, he ran away on his heels saying,“I have nothing to do with you. I see (the angels) which the disbelievers cannot see. I fear Allah (SWT)since Allah (SWT) is severe in punishment.” This was described in verse 48 of Al-Anfal.
The muslims won the battle but Allah (SWT) says to them, in verse 17 0f Al-Anfal.
You Muslims did not slay but Allah (SWT) slew them. You Mohammad (SAS) did not throw when you did throw, but Allah (SWT) threw.
Allah (SWT) is saying to the Prophet (SAS) and his companions, that they can not take credit for winning the battle. Victory comes only from Allah (SWT). Allah is also reminding us that when Prophet Mohammad (SWT) took some dust and pebbles in his palm and threw them towards the enemy. It changed into a whirl wind. This whirlwind got into the eyes of the enemy and forced the enemy to run away. Just like this handful of dust changed into a whirlwind with the help of Allah (SWT), in the same way the total conquest came about with the help of Allah (SWT) alone.
Near the end of the battle, the Muslim army divided in to three groups. One group followed the fleeing enemy so that they do not come back. The second group started collecting the spoils of the war from the battlefield. These poor Muslims were very happy to have the belongings of rich enemy. The third group stood around Prophet Mohammad (SAS) vigilantly lest a hidden enemy would harm the Prophet (SAS). There was a serious problem between the groups regarding the distribution of the booty as they met in the evening. The group which collected it claimed that it belonged to them because they gathered it from the battlefield. The other group said that they should have a share in it since they provided the opportunity for the first group to gather the booty while they were pursuing the enemy. The third group said that they should have a share in it since they did the most important duty of guarding Prophet Mohammad (SAS). As narrated by Ubada bin Samit, (RU) there was a serious problem between them so much so that they started behaving disrespectfully towards each other. So far there had been no instructions regarding the distribution of booty. The previous Ummah were not allowed to make use of the booty. They used to put it in the form of a pile and if a lightening came and burnt it, it was considered as an indicator of their acceptance of their Jihad.
Allah (SWT) revealed the detailed instructions about the distribution of this booty to Prophet Mohammad (SAS) in Surah Al Infal. As soon as the companions came to know about this guidance of Allah (SWT), all their differences disappeared. The booty was distributed amongst all the participants according to the instructions of Allah (SWT). It was the mercy of Allah (SWT) to grant this privilege and honor to the Ummah of Prophet Mohammad (SAS) to use this booty. It also teaches us a lesson about how the companions of Prophet Mohammad (SAS) united eagerly in following the guidance of Allah (SWT).
According to non Muslim historians, the Battle of Badr is the most important battle in the history of mankind. This made a lasting impact on the history of the mankind.
We have reviewed many miracles which took place during the battle of Badr and how the help of Allah (SWT) comes to committed believers. An Urdu poet said very beautifully,
“If you create the climate of Badr again, the angels can still come row after row to provide you with the help.”
I pray to Allah (SWT) to help us to follow the footprints of Prophet Mohammad (SAS) and his companions and grant us success as He granted them in the Battle of Badr. Ameen.