Allah (SWT) says in surah Al-Anam # 152-153
And do not approach the wealth of an orphan except with that which is better till he reaches maturity. Give full measure and full weight, in justice. We tax not any soul beyond its scope. And if you give your word, do justice thereof, eventhough it be against a kinsman, and fulfill the covenant of Allah. He commands you this so that perhaps you may remember. Allah (SWT) (also commands you saying): this is My straight path so follow it. “Do not follow other ways, lest you be parted from His way. Allah (SWT) ordained you this so that you can attain piety.
First of all we are commanded not to devour or consume an orphan’s wealth in our custody. We are required to restore the deposits belonging to the orphans, as soon as they come of age. According to Imam Abu Hanifa we should further wait till orphans are capable of handling their affairs. We must, however, restore them before the orphan reaches the age of 25, unless the orphan is totally insane. Some scholars say to transfer the orphan’s deposit to the department of justice who may appoint a responsible person to look after it.
Allah (SWT) says:
“When an orphan comes of age and is also capable of handling his affairs, restore the deposits to him.” Hence we conclude that to come of age is not enough, but the ability to handle the affairs is also a prerequisite. Allah (SWT) also says: “Those who devour Orphan’s wealth are filling their bellies with fire.”
Here Allah (SWT) also commands us to give full measure and full weight with justice. The People of prophet Shuaib (AS) were destroyed for disobeying this command. There is a strong warning in the Quran for those who cheat in weighing. Note that not doing justice in ones job is also like not weighing correctly. Hence a person should do his best. Anything beyond his capacity is not his fault. Swaid bin Qais
(RU) narrated that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said:
“Weigh and give a bit more than due” (Abu Dawud & Tirmidhi)
Jaber narrates that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said: “May Allah’s mercy be on the person who is soft hearted as a seller and gives a bit more than due and a soft hearted buyer accepts even if it is a bit less.”
Further Allah (SWT) commands us when we speak we must speak out the truth even if it is about your near relatives.
Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said: “False witnessing is like making partners with Allah” He repeated this thrice and then recited the following verse:
“Save yourself from the filthy belief of idol worshipping and false statements and making partners with Allah.” (Abu Dawud & Ibn Majah)
Burrida narrates that Prophet Mohammad (SAS) said: “There are three kinds of judges. One kind will go to Heaven and the other two kinds to Hell. The one who researches the matter at hand according to the Islamic conduct and tries his best to discover the truth to give a fair and correct verdict will go to Heaven. The one who arrives at correct conclusions through knowledge and research but gives a wrong verdict will go to Hell. Similarly, one who lacks knowledge or reasonable research in a matter and delivers the verdict with his ignorance will also go to Hell.”
The Quran guides about witnessing very beautifully:
You should speak the truth even if it is against yourself, your parents or your near relatives.
Islam has the highest standard of conduct. Allah (SWT) says:
Animosity with a group should not prevent you from witnessing righteously or delivering a decision justly.
Hence we are advised to be very careful even in our daily routine conversations. We are not supposed to lie, backbite, or say anything which harms or hurts another individual or causes others’ personal monetary loss.
Allah (SWT) commands us to fulfill our promises. Allah (SWT) says in surah Al-Baqarah # 177
The true believers fulfill their promise when they make one.
It is interesting to note that this verse is stating that it should be a matter of habit with the believers to fulfill their promises since the disbelievers casually do fulfill their promises. Similarly Allah (SWT) says Al-Ma’arij # 32
One indicator of the true believers is that they fulfill their trust and covenants.
Finally Allah (SWT) is saying to us that this is my Straight Path. Hence follow it. Do not follow other routes since they will divert you from the way of Allah.
Abdullah bin Mas’ud narrated, “One time Prophet Mohammad (SAS) drew a straight line and said, ‘This is the way of Allah (SWT).’ He then drew other lines around it and said, ‘These are Subul. Satan is on each of these extra lines and he tries to divert people from the way of Allah (SWT).’ Prophet Mohammad (SAS) then recited the verse from surah Al-Anam quoted in the beginning.” (Musnad Darmi)
Let us summarize and make some general observations about these three verses from surah Al-Anam.
The first verse describes five commandments.
– not to make partners with Allah (SWT).
– obey parents.
– not to kill children (physically and spirtually).
– to guard against immoral behavior.
– not to kill somebody unjustly.
Then Allah (SWT) said: “So that you may understand.” Since these were not considered bad before the dawn of Islam. Allah (SWT) is advising us to leave these ideas of times of ignorance and come to our senses.
The second verse describes four commandments:
– not to devour the orphan’s wealth.
– to weigh correctly.
– speak and stand for truth.
– to fulfill promises.
– Follow the straight path of Allah (SWT).
These items are such basic truth that anyone can see the good in them. However most of us are very careless about these things. The solution for carelessness is reminder. Hence Allah (SWT) says at the end of this verse, “So that this guidance may serve as a reminder for you.”
In the third verse we are asked to follow the straight path and avoid other paths. This can only be done by being conscious of Allah (SWT) and by trying to achieve piety. Hence in these verses there are ten commandments. These three verses are very important. Ka’ab Ahbaar (RU) was a Jew and well versed in the Torah. He said after accepting Islam:
“The Torah starts with these ten commandments mentioned in the Qur’an in the above three verses. These are the ten commandments which were revealed to Prophet Moses (AS).”
Abdullah bin Abbas (RU) said that these are clear revelations which are mentioned in surah Al Imran. Furthermore all codes of conduct from Prophet Adam (AS) to Prophet Mohammad (SAS) consisted of these ten commandments and were not canceled in any Shari’ah.
In tafseer of Ibn Kather, it is narrated by Abdullah Bin Masud (RU) that if any one wants to see the will of Prophet Mohammad (SAS) with his seal on it, he should read these three verses of Surah of Al-Anam.
Similarly Hakam described it as was narrated by Abada Bin Samat (RU), that one day Prophet Mohammad (SAS) addressed his companions and asked, “Who will give his pledge to me on these verses”? He then recited these three verses of Surah Al-Anam and then said, “One who will fulfill his pledge is ensured his reward with Allah (SWT). I pray to Allah (SWT) to enable us to follow the will of Prophet Mohammad (SAS).