1. Osman bin Affan (RU) and his houses.
He belonged to Banu Omayya branch of Quraish tribe. His ancestral link joins with the Prophet (SAS) after five steps. He accepted Islam with the preaching of Abu Bakr (RU) at the dawn of Islam. He used to say, “I am the fourth among the four persons who accepted Islam in the very beginning.” The Prophet (SAS) gave him the good tiding of Paradise.
He first migrated to Habsha and later to Madina. He had the unique honor of marrying two daughters of the Prophet (SAS) one after the other. He was, therefore, called Dhul Nurain i.e. owner of two lights. He first married Ruqayya (RUA), and could not join battle of Badr due to her severe illness. He, however, received the reward and his share in the bounty. He married Umm Kalsum (RUA) after Ruqayya’s death.
He became Caliph in Muharram 24H and became martyr in 35 H. He was buried in Baqee. The Prophet (SAS) granted him a piece of land on the east side of the Mosque. Osman (RU) built a house on it. This house is called Darul-Kubra or the large house. Osman (RU) bought some land on the east side of this house and built a house on it too. This second house is called Darul Sughra or the small house.
(A) Large House:
According to the historians, the large house was situated between Bab Jibreel and Habsha Street. Habsha Street ran between the houses of Abu Ayyub Ansari (RU) and Osman (RU). This street was 2½ meters wide. The street lost its identity during the first Saudi extension.
Whenever the Prophet (SAS) visited Osman’s (RU) house he often used Bab Jibreel for it. Hence Bab Jibreel is sometimes called Bab-un-Nabi or Bab Aal Osman. As mentioned above, on the south of this large house was Habsha Street. North of this large house was Baqee street. East of it was smaller house of Osman (RU). While west of the large house was the site for Salat-ul-Janaza.
Later on this house was divided into three parts. A facility for accommodating the poor and needy was built in the portion facing Bab Jibreel by Jamal-ud-Din Mohammad bin Abu Mansur Asfahani. This facility was known as Rubat Asfahani or Rubat Ajam. This facility existed till the first Saudi extension.
Asad-ud-Din Shairkoh was the uncle of Salah-ud-Din Ayubi. He bought the southern side of this Rubat in 576H. He and the father of Salah-ud-Din (namely Najm-ud-Din Ayubi) were buried in this piece of land.
The remaining part of this large house was south of the Rubat. That portion was exclusively used for the service personnel of Haram. Later on the scholars of Haram used it for their residence. This part, therefore, was known as Dar Mashaikh Haram.
As mentioned by Mohammad Labeeb Batnuni, Osman (RU) became a martyr in this very southern most part of the large house. Labeeb visited Madina in 1326 A.D. and he found the following writings on top of window of a room in this southern portion.
This is the site where Osman (RU) became a martyr.
1(B) Small House:
This house was adjacent to the large house and was just east of the large house. As seen in the map, Abu Bakr’s (RU) house was north of this small house and a street, known as Baqee Street, ran between them. The murderers of Osman (RU) first got into this small house and made their way to the large house to commit heinous crime.
Later on a travel lodge was built on the small house, which existed till first Saudi extension. At present it is part of the eastern open space of the Mosque
2.Ali (RU), Fatima (RUA) and their house:
Ali (RU) was the cousin of the Prophet (SAS). He was also the son in law of the Prophet (SAS). The Prophet (SAS) brought him up. He accepted Islam when he was only ten years old. He took part in all the battles except battle of Tabuk. The Prophet (SAS) gave him the glad tiding of Paradise. He was the fourth Caliph. He became a martyr on the 17th of Ramadhan by Abdur Rehman bin Muljim Kharji. Ali’s (RU) son, Hasan (RU), led the Salat-ul-Janaza. Kufa was the capital at that time. Hence he was buried there in the Caliph’s residence. The grave of Ali (RU) was unmarked for the fear of disgracing the body by Kharjees.
Fatima (RUA) and her house:
Fatima (RUA) was the youngest daughter of the Prophet (SAS). She was also known as Zahra. She was married to Ali (RU) during 2 Hijrah right after the Battle of Badr. She had three sons Hasan, Hussain and Mohsin. She had also two daughters Umm Kalsum and Zainab. She died six months after the Prophet’s (SAS) demise. Caliph Omar (RU) married Fatima’s daughter, Umm Kalsum.
As mentioned in Musnad Ahmad and narrated by Abdullah bin Abbas (RU), the Prophet (SAS) said, “The headwomen for the people of Paradise will be Maryam, then Fatima, then Khadija and then Asia.”
The house of Ali (RU) and Fatima (RUA) was surrounded by the followings.
1. On its south was Aisha’s (RU) house.
2. On its north side was the footpath coming out of Bab Jibreel called Baqee Street.
3. On its west was Prophet’s Mosque while on its east was hut of Umm Salma (RUA).
When Omar bin Abdul Aziz (RU) reconstructed the four walls of the Sacred Chamber, the northern portion of Ali’s (RU) house was included in the Sacred Chamber.
In 91 H Omar bin Abdul Aziz (RU) expanded the Mosque and installed twenty doors in it. Door number two happened to be in front of Ali’s (RU) house. Hence this door came to be known as Bab Ali. Later on, the eastern wall of the Mosque was reconstructed and Bab Ali was replaced by a window. This window still exists and is situated on our right side as we exit the Mosque from Bab Jibreel.
It ran from Bab Jibreel upto Baqee and was 2½ meter wide. It was used for visiting Baqee. A stone floor was laid down all around the Prophet’s Mosque. This stone floor was also laid down in Baqee street upto the house of Mugheera bin Shuba (RU).
3. Abu Bakr (RU) and his house:
His name was Abdul Kabah. The Prophet (SAS) changed it to Abdullah. He was known as Siddique and Atiq. His father’s name was Osman. He was also known as Abu Quhafa. His ancestors join the family of the Prophet (SAS) at sixth step. He was the first caliph.
Abu Bakr (RU) accepted Islam without any hesitation at the very dawn of Islam. He started preaching it to others and many prominent companions of the Prophet (SAS) accepted Islam through the preaching of Abu Bakr (RU). He supported Islamic movement by every possible way. He very eagerly sacrificed everything for the sake of Islam. Nobody could reach his level of sacrifice. At one time he volunteered all his belongings in the path of Allah. The Prophet (SAS) asked him, “What did you leave at home?” He said, “Names of Allah and his Messenger are enough for my home.” The Prophet (SAS) gave him glad tiding of Paradise.
He participated in all the battles. He died at the age of sixty-three during 13H. He was buried next to the Prophet (SAS) in the Sacred Chamber.
Abu Bakr (RU) had two houses in the vicinity of the Prophet’s Mosque. One was situated east of the Mosque and other on the west side of the Mosque.
Eastern house was opposite to the smaller house of Osman (RU). It was also adjacent to the house of Raita bint Abu Al Abbas. When Raita extended her home she annexed part of the land of Abu Bakr’s (RU) house. These houses did exist till the first Saudi extension. They are now part of the eastern open space of the Prophet’s Mosque.
As mentioned in Tabkat Ibn Saad and narrated by Aisha (RUA), this house was given to Abu Bakr (RU) by the Prophet (SAS). She added that Abu Bakr (RU) was in this house during his last days and died here too.
The western house of Abu Bakr (RU) will be described in the description of houses situated to the west of the Mosque.
4. Mughaeera bin Shuba (RU) and his house:
This famous companion participated in Bait Ridwan and in Bait Yamama as well. He fought with great courage in battles of Yarmook, Qadsia and the battles that took place in Greater Syria. He was gifted with farsightedness and he distinguished himself as a valuable political thinker. He died with plague during 50H.
His house was situated in Baqee street just pass the house of Abu Bakr (RU).
5. House of Raita bint Abu-al-Abbas and her house:
She was daughter of Abu-al-Abbas Safah. She was wife of Mehdi bin Abu Jaafar Mansur, the third Abbasi caliph.
Her house was exactly opposite to Bab-in-Nisa. Hence this door was sometimes called Bab Raita. As mentioned in Vafa-ul-Vafa, Samhoudi (who died in 911 Hijrah) said, “There is a Hanafi School at this site which was built by Syrian people.” Abdul Qaddus Ansari (who died in 1403 Hijrah) wrote, “There is a building on this site called Zawaya-tul-Saman.”
Before the first Saudi extension, which took place during 1372 Hijrah, a building with this name existed on this site. At present this house is included in the open space on the east side of the Mosque.
6. Jubaila bin Amr Ansari (RU) and his house:
Jubaila (RUA) was the brother of Uqba bin Amr (RU). (Aqba bin Amer (RU) took part in the Battle of Badr). Jubaila (RUA) was prominent scholar of Islamic jurisprudence. He took part in the battle of Saffain with Ali (RU). After this Battle he migrated to Egypt. He took part in African battles with Muawiya bin Khadeej during 50 Hijrah.
Jubaila’s house was opposite to the fifth door.
This house witnessed many changes. Raita annexed part of it with her house. The remaining part was owned by Saad bin Khalid bin Omar bin Osman. After him the daughter of great grandchild of Abbas (RU) owned it. Her name was Asma bint Abdullah bint Obeid Ullah bint Abbas. Later on a travel lodge for women pilgrims was built on this site by Kamal-ud-Din Abu Fadl Mohammad bin Qasim. It was removed during the first Saudi extension. During the second Saudi expansion it was included in the covered Mosque.
7. Khalid bin Waleed (RU) and his house:
He belonged to Banu Makhzum branch of Quraish tribe. As a disbeliever he was a commander of Quraish army. He played even greater role as a Muslim commander after accepting Islam. The Prophet (SAS) called him Saif Ullah or the Sword of Allah (SWT). He not only fought against those who reverted back to disbelief but also played an extra ordinary role in battles of Persia, Rome, Damascus and Greater Syria. Martyrdom was, however, not his lot. On his deathbed he said, “I took part in about one hundred battles. No part of my body is without signs of wounds. Alas! I am dying on a bed. I pray that the cowards may not even sleep.”
Khalid bin Waleed’s house was opposite to the sixth door.
Qazi Kamal-ud-Din removed the houses of Khalid bin Waleed (RU) and Amr bin al-As (AS) and built a travel lodge for the male pilgrims. It was known as Rabat Khalid.
Abdul Qaddus Ansari wrote in Asar-ul-Madina that justice department issued an order on the 11th Rabi II of 1111H to change the use of this Rabat. According to this order it was to be used exclusively by the service, security and custodial personnel of the Mosque.
The Rabat was removed during the first Saudi extension to pave the way for a road there. It was, however, included in the covered Mosque during the second Saudi extension. This travel lodge or Rabat was situated opposite to the old Bab Abdul Aziz. Hence this old door was called Bab Khalid.
Hut of the commander:
As mentioned in Vafa-ul-Vafa, Khalid bin Waleed’s (RU) house was so small that he had to bring this matter to the kind notice of the Prophet (SAS). On hearing the complaint, the Prophet (SAS) said to Khalid, “Instead of extending it at ground level try to extend it upward and pray to Allah (SWT) for extension of your house and for the relief from this distress.”
Mohammad Hussain Haikal has given his commentary on the modesty, contentment and small residence of Khalid bin Waleed (RU). Haikal said, “Can someone believe that this dark house with very small accommodation belonged to a very distinguished Muslim commander. His war strategies won the Battle of Muta and the huge empires of Rome and Persia. He was an open sword of Islam. Did he really live in this house!”
Indeed the companions of the Prophet (SAS) were unique in submission to the will of Allah (SWT) and their characters were matchless.
8. Amr bin al- As (RU) and his house:
He was very intelligent and a man of great understanding. He accepted Islam the same year when Khaiber was conquered. The Prophet (SAS) made him a commander for the Battle of Zat-ul-Salasil against the tribe of Banu Qudaah. Later on he was appointed governor of Amman. He stayed there till the Prophet (SAS) passed away. He was also governor of Syria and Egypt. In fact, he conquered Egypt. He was counted among the very courageous and distinguished persons of the Arab world.
He died during the night of Eid-ul-Fitr of 43 Hijrah. His son Abdullah bin Amr led the Salat-ul-Janaza. He was buried in Muqattam.
His house was in front of the seventh door of the Mosque. As mentioned earlier it was changed into Rabat Khalid. It was also known as Rabat Sabeel.
On the eastern side of the Prophet’s Mosque, there was a street in front of the seventh door. This street led to a large open field called Manase. Hence this street was called Manase Street.
When there were no lavatories in the homes, the women of Madina used to go to Manase. As mentioned in Muslim, and narrated by Aisha (RUA), “Even the wives of the Prophet (SAS) used to go to Manase for toilet needs.”