MIGRATION TO MADINA
Several important events took place before migration to Madina.
1. The Jews of Madina were anxiously waiting for Prophet Mohammad (SAS) generation after generation. They use to tell the powerful tribes of Madina,Aus and Khazrij, when Prophet Mohammad (SAS) will come we will crush you down with his help.
2. During the Hajj of eleventh year of Nabawi six persons of Khazrij met the Prophet (SAS) and embraced Islam. In this way they wished to punish Jews with the help of the Prophet (SAS).Next year seven additional persons from Madina accepted Islam. The Prophet (SAS) sent Musaab bin Umair as his first ambassador and a preacher to Madina.
3. During the 13th year of Nabawi seventy-five persons of Madina invited the Prophet (SAS) to Madina and pledged to protect him under all circumstances.
4. Above pledge between the Prophet (SAS) and the visitors of Madina had a great historical importance since the Muslims found a homeland to establish them there. Consequently the Prophet (SAS) granted permission to the Muslims to migrate to Madina.
An Arab is identified only through his link with his tribe. If his link is broken he becomes a lost person with no importance what so ever. Any body can kill him without any accountability. Migration meant to cut yourself from your tribe. This was the greatest sacrifice on the part of the Prophet (SAS) and his followers since anybody could kill them without any fear. They made this sacrifice only and only to practice Islam.
The Quraish of Makkah were very upset to see the Muslims with powerful tribes of Madina. They made the migration as miserable for the Muslims as they could. For example, as mentioned by Ibni Ishaq, Abu Salma (RA) tried to migrate from Makkah to Madina with his wife and a child. His in-laws forcefully took away his wife while his own family took away the child. He migrated alone. His wife was crying day after day for separation from her husband and her child. After one year one person of her tribe took pity on her and got her permission to migrate to Madina along with her child.
Ibni Hisham mentioned that when Suhaib (RA) tried to migrate, the Quraish said to him, “When you came here, you were very poor and had no worldly importance. Now you have become a very rich man. We will not let you go with your wealth.” Suhaib (RA) said, “If I give you all my wealth, will you let me go?” They agreed. Suhaib (RA) handed them all his wealth and migrated to Madina. When the Prophet (SAS) learnt this, he said, “Suhaib did a profitable bargain. Indeed, Suhaib did a profitable bargain.”
All immigrants had similar experiences. In spite of this most of the Muslims migrated to Madina. Quraish were very furious to see this. They stationed one person from each tribe outside the Prophet’s (SAS) home during the night. All of them were to join hands to kill the Prophet (SAS) as he (SAS) came out of his home in the morning. In this way, his tribe will not be able to take revenge from all the tribes. Al-Anfal: # 30:
And remember when the disbelievers plotted against you to prison you, or to kill you, or to get you out (from Makkah); they were plotting and Allah too was plotting; and Allah is the best of those who plot.
Allah SWT informed the Prophet (SAS) about their dirty plan. The Prophet (SAS) said to Ali (RA), “Sleep on my bed and migrate to Madina after distributing the precious belongings (or deposits) of various persons in my house.”
1. Even the blood thirsty enemies knew that the Prophet (SAS) was the most trustworthy person and used to deposit their most precious items with him for security.
2. The Prophet (SAS) made sure that the precious items of his enemies were returned to them under all circumstances.
3. Ali (RA) was sure that he would remain alive and would be able to do above difficult assignment since the Prophet (SAS) said so.
4. The Prophet (SAS) valued the talents of Ali (RA) even at Ali’s (RA) young age.
The Prophet (SAS) came out of his house at night and walked passed his enemies. The Prophet (SAS) was reciting Ya-Sin #: 9:
And we have put a barrier before them, and a barrier behind them, and We have covered them up, so that they cannot see.
Hence Allah (SWT) restricted their eyesight and they could not see the Prophet (SAS) even though the Prophet (SAS) put some dust on the head of each soldier stationed outside his house.
MIGRATION OF THE PROPHET (SAS)
The Prophet (SAS) went to Abu Bakr’s (RA) house and both jumped out from the back window of his house and walked away in the darkness of night as planned. They walked about five miles and went into a cave called “Thur”.
The disbelievers were extremely furious to find Ali (RA) on the Prophet’s (SAS) bed. They started a big search for the Prophet (SAS) and announced a reward of one hundred camels for the head of the Prophet (SAS).
One troop of disbelievers arrived at the mouth of cave Thur. They noticed a spider’s web on the entrance of this cave. They concluded that the Prophet (SAS) did not enter this cave otherwise the web should have been broken. Similarly another troop also arrived at the mouth of this cave and they found a birdhouse containing eggs of a bird at the very mouth of the cave. They also concluded that the Prophet (SAS) did not enter this cave otherwise the web and birdhouse would have been not there.
Note that the enemy was about a yard away but Allah (SWT) protected His Prophet by His weakest creation i.e. the web of a spider.
Each time Abu Bakr (RA) said, “If the enemy bends down, they will see us.” The Prophet (SAS) said: “Do not worry Allah’s (SWT) help is with us. At-Taubah # 40:
If you help him (the Prophet) not for Allah did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of the two, when they were in the cave. He said to his companion (Abu Bakr), “Be not sad or afraid surely Allah is with us”. Then Allah sent down His calmness (peace) upon him and strengthen him with forces which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowest, while the word of Allah that became the upper most and Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.
It was Allah’s Mercy that he kept them both calm in such a difficult situation and helped them by his unseen forces.
STAY IN CAVE THUR
The Prophet (SAS) and Abu Bakr (RA) stayed in this cave on Friday, Saturday and Sunday.
1. Abdullah bin Abu Bakr (RA) used to come to cave Thur at night and informed them about the plans and activities of the disbelievers. He used to return to Makkah before dawn as if he was always in Makkah.
2. Amer bin Fuhairah used to bring his herd of sheep to this cave during the night so that both can drink milk of sheep to their fill. He used to take his herd to Makkah before dawn in such a way that the foot prints of Abdullah bin Abu Bakr were erased.
3. Abdullah bin Areeqat Laithi, a trustworthy disbeliever and professional guide, was hired by Abu Bakr (RA). He came to this cave with two camels of Abu Bakr (RA) after three days.
4. At this time Abu Bakr (RA) offered one camel to the Prophet (SAS) as gift. The Prophet (SAS) insisted to pay for it. Abu Bakr (RA) sold it for four hundred dirm. This is the famous camel of the Prophet (SAS) called Quswa.
5. They started journey towards Madina under the guidance of Abdullah bin Areeqat. Amer was also with them.
During their journey from Makkah to Madina they passed near the tent of Umm Maabad. They enquired, “Do you have some thing to eat or drink?” She said, “Sorry, nothing at all. Even herd of my sheep is far away with my husband.” The Prophet (SAS) saw a sheep near the tent and asked her, “What about this sheep?” Umm Maabad said: “It is extremely weak. It has no milk whatsoever.” The Prophet (SAS) said, “May I milk it?” She said, “Help yourself, if you find any milk there.” The Prophet (SAS) touched this sheep and made a dua and then started milking it in a container. Umm Maabad drank it to her fill. Similarly Prophet’s companions drank to their fills. He (SAS) refilled the container with milk and left it with her. Umm Maabad’s husband returned home and was surprised to see the milk. She told her husband, “A very pious person visited her.” She described his features. The husband said, “It is the same person which Quraish are looking for. I wish I can be his companion.” (Zadul Ma’ad).
They continued their journey towards Madina. Suraqa bin Malik pursued them on his horse and wished to hand over the Prophet (SAS) to Quraish to win one hundred camels. As he reached near them, his horse fell down. The feet of his horse were some what buried in the sand. He made four attempts with same result. Suraqa realized that he was trying to capture a Prophet (SAS). Suraqa walked up to the Prophet (SAS) and disclosed his ill intentions. Suraqa requested the Prophet (SAS) to forgive him and his tribe and do not take revenge from them on the day when he (SAS) will overpower the Quraish. The Prophet (SAS) most generously granted his request. Later on, Suraqa embraced Islam. (Zadul Maad).
Buraida Aslami was head of his tribe. He was looking for the Prophet (SAS) to win the prize offered by Quraish. He spotted them and as he drew near the Prophet (SAS) and talked to him, the Prophet (SAS) won his heart. Buraida and seventy of his tribe men embraced Islam there and then. He made a white flag of his turban and went back announcing loudly that the Prophet, the king of the peace and justice is traveling. (Rahma-tul-Alameen by Mohammad Sulaiman).
ARRIVAL TO QUBA’
Residents of Madina and tribes around it used to wait for the Prophet (SAS) sitting in groups outside their homes. They used to return to their homes during noon since the sun was unbearable. One day one Jew happened to go up a hillock during the noon to look for some thing. He saw the Prophet (SAS) and his companions dressed in white approaching Quba. He announced this loudly to Arabs. The Muslims of Quba rushed out decorated with their arms to greet the Prophet (SAS). The Prophet (SAS) sat down and Abu Bakr (RA) was shaking hand with them one by one. In the meanwhile, the sunshine appeared on the Prophet’s (SAS) face. Abu Bakr (RA) held a sheet on top of the Prophet (SAS) to protect him from intense sun. Then they understood who the Prophet was. (Bukhari).
The Jews witness the fulfilling of the prediction in Bible stating Allah from south and that Quddus (holy person) come from mountain Faran.
After a few days, he built a mosque in Quba as mentioned in Qur’an.The Prophet (SAS) and all the companions took part in the construction of this Mosque. All Muslims were equal and were keen to earn reward of Allah (SWT) After a short stay he (SAS) proceeded towards Madina on Friday and offered Salat-ul Jum’ah in the community of tribe Banu Salim Bin Auf. We see a Masjid called Jumah Masjid at this site even now.
ARRIVAL IN MADINA
The Prophet’s (SWS) camel sat down near the house of Abu Ayyub Ansari (RA) in Madina and he stayed there till Masjid Nabawi and a hut for him (SAS) were completed. All companions and the Prophet (SAS) himself took part in the construction of Masjid Nabawi as they did for Mosque Quba.
After a few days, Sauda (RUA), the wife of the Prophet (SAS), Prophet’s two daughters, Fatima (RAU) and Ummu Kulsum (RUA), Usama bin Zaid (RA), Aisha (RAU) and Ummu Aiman (RUA) also migrated to Madina in the company of Abdullah bin Abu Bakr (RA). However, Prophet’s (SAS) daughter Zainab (RUA) was allowed to migrate to Madina after the battle of Badar.
The Prophet (SAS) made the following du’a, “O Allah, make us love Madina as we did Makkah or even more. Please make its climate healthy for us. Add blessing in our measuring standards and transfer fever of Madina to Jaahfa.” Allah (SWT) granted his du’a and living in Madina became very pleasant. (Bukhari).
IMPORTANCE OF HIJRA
It had far reaching consequences:
1. This changed the Islamic society into an Islamic Ummah. Discrimination on the bases of color, creed, rich or poor disappeared. All Muslim were equal.
2. According to Muslim historians the Prophet arrived in Quba on 16th July 632 A.D. It was month of Muharram and the Hijra calendar was started from this day.
3. The foundation of an Islamic state was laid down in Madina. The historic agreements made with Jews and other tribes served as guideline for all the coming generations.
4. Among all the companions, the Prophet (SAS) chose to migrate in the company of Abu Bakr (RA). It is also mentioned in Quran in Surah At-Taubah . It is great honor for Abu Bakr (RA).
Any fair minded person can see from this article that the role of Abu Bakr (RA) during the Hijra was great, indeed. It is unfortunate that some people talk unfairly about this esteemed companion.