CONQUEST OF MAKKAH (8H)
The conquest of Makkah was the most important victory of the Muslims since the idols and idol worshipper were expelled from the House of Allah and Allah’s (SWT) religion prevailed. New honors were bestowed on the Prophet of Allah and his followers. Crushing defeat of rich and arrogant Quraish proved that Islam is a true religion. Many other Arab tribes also embraced Islam willingly and happily.
DISHONESTY OF DISBELIEVERS
Now I shall briefly describe the circumstances leading to conquest of Makkah. The Quraish of Makkah broke the Treaty of Hudaibia made in Zulqada 6 H. Their dishonesty made the treaty null and void. They were afraid of Muslims. They wished to renew the treaty. They sent their leader Abu Sufyan to Madina to renew the treaty. He first visited his daughter, Umm Habibah (RAU), the wife of Prophet (SAS). Abu Sufyan was about to sit on a mat spread on the ground in her home. Umm Habibah removed the mat and said to her father, “This mat is for the Prophet (SAS). You can not sit on it since you are an unclear idolater.” Abu Sufyan was disappointed from his daughter. Abu Sufyan also visited Abu Bakar (RA),Umar (RA), Ali (RA), and Fatimah (RAU) and requested them for help. All of them gave him cold shoulder. He got frustrated and went back to Makkah.
The Prophet (SAS) started making preparation to invade Makkah and also made the following supplication, “O Allah, please let not the secret service people inform the disbelievers of Makkah so that we catch them all of a sudden.”
ALLAH’S (SWT) HELP
A few attempts were made to alarm Quraish but Allah (SWT) failed such attempts. The Muslim troops reached very near Makkah. The Quraish were scared and worried because of their dishonesty. Their leaders, including Abu Sufyan, used to wander around Makkah at night to sense any danger. One night Abbas (RA), the uncle of Prophet (SAS), came across Abu Sufyan. Abbas (RA) told Abu Sufyan that the Prophet (SAS) and his forces are here. Abu Sufyan said, “Quraish are definitely ruined now by this surprise attack.” Abbas (RA) said to him, “If any body see you, he will definitly kill you. I suggest that you come with me and I shall request the Prophet (SAS) to give you refuge.” Abu Sufyan agreed. The Prophet (SAS) told Abu Sufyan, “Have you not yet realized that I am the Prophet (SAS) of Allah (SWT)?” Abbas (RA) advised Abu Sufyan, “You better embraced Islam before some body kill you.” Abu Sufyan said, “I stand witness that there is only one God to worship and Mohammad is the Prophet (SAS) of Allah.” Abbas (RA) requested the Prophet (SAS)to award some honor to Abu Sufyan since he was a prominent leader. The Prophet said, “Any person who will enter the house of Abu Sufyan, or even his own home or Masjid Al-Haram will not be harmed in anyway.”
ENTRY OF MUSLIMS FORCES INTO MAKKAH
Khaled bin Walid (RA) advanced with his troops from the right side, Zubair bin Awwam (RA) from the left side while Abu Obeida (RA) led the foot soldiers. The Prophet (SAS) advanced towards House of Allah (SWT) surrounded by Ansar and Muhajirin. Islamic forces experienced no resistant except that a few notorious Quraish youth tried to stop Khalid bin Walid (RA). Eight idolaters were kills and rest of them ran away. Two Muslim soldiers some how got separated from the troops. They tried to follow a different route to Kabah. They were killed by the Idolaters.
All The Muslim forces joined the Prophet (SAS) at mountain Safa at the border of Masjid-ul Haram.
ENTRY INTO MASJID-UL HARAM
The Prophet (SAS) entered Masjid-ul Haram, kissed the Black Stone and then went around the House of Allah (SWT) on his camel. There were three hundred and sixty idols lying on the roof of House of Allah (SWT). The Prophet (SAS) was holding an arc in his hand. He touched each idol with his arc while reciting Al-Isra’ #81
And say,” Truth has come and falsehood has vanished, surely the falsehood is ever bound to vanish.”
Each idol fell down on its face as the arc touched it. The Prophet (SAS) called Usman bin Talha and got hold of key of the House of Allah (SWT).
INSIDE HOUSE OF ALLAH (SWT)
The Prophet (SAS) saw pictures inside Kabah including the pictures of Prophet Ibrahim (AS) and Prophet Ismael (AS) holding arrows of lottery in their hands. All pictures and other similar items were removed from The House of Allah (SWT).
The Prophet (SAS) closed the door of the House of Allah (SWT). Bilal (RA) and Usama (RA) were with the Prophet (SAS) inside the House of Allah (SWT). The Prophet (SAS) offered salat inside the House of Allah (SWT) and then he walked around in the House, reciting. Allah (SWT) is the greatest, Allah (SWT) is the greatest. Then he came out of the house of Allah (SWT) and saw that Quraish were anxiously waiting to see the Prophet’s next move. The Prophet (SAS) held the door of Kabah and addressed the Quraish.
The Prophet (SAS) said, “There is no god except Allah (SWT) worthy of worship. He is alone. He has no partners. He fulfilled His promise and helped His obedient servant, He alone defeated all the opposing forces…… Allah (SWT) has crushed your arrogance and pride of your forefathers. All people are from Adam and Adam was made from mud.” And then the Prophet (SAS) recited Al-Hujarat #13.
”O mankind, We have created you from a male and female, and made you into nations and tribes that you may know one another. Verily the most honorable of you with Allah (SWT) is that (believer) who is pious. Verily Allah (SWT) is All Knowing, All-Aware.
While listening this the Quraish were very worried. All kind of thoughts went through their minds since they had tortured the Prophet and his companions, tried to kill them and expelled them from their homeland. They had also waged three major wars to totally wipe out the Muslims from the surface of earth. Quraish were thinking that the Prophet (SAS) may order to kill them all or take over their properties or, at least, make them all slaves.
The Prophet (SAS) said to Quraish:” What do you think how am I going to treat you today?” They said, “Good, since you are a kind hearted brother.”At this the Prophet (SAS) said to them,” I am going to treat you in the same manner as Prophet Yusuf (AS) treated his brothers.” The Prophet (SAS) announced a grand pardon reciting what Prophet Yusuf (AS) recited. Yusuf #92
No reproach on you this day. In other words the Prophet (SAS) said,” You are totally free. No body will harm you in any way today.” There is no example in human history of grand a pardon like this to blood thirsty enemies.
WHISPERING OF LEADERS OF QURAISH
It was now the time for Dhur salat. The Prophet (SAS) said to Bilal (RA) to make the Adhan (or call for prayer). Bilal (RA) rose on the top of the roof of the House of Allah (SWT) and made the Adhan. While Bilal (RA) was making the Adhan, three prominent leaders of Quraish were whispering to each other sitting in the courtyard of Kabah. Attab bin Aseed (عتّاب ابن آسيد) said to Haris bin Hisham (حارث ابن هشام), “I am glad that my father has passed away and has not seen this black donkey shouting on the top of the sacred house. He would have been much grieved to see this scene.” Haris said, “Listen, if I am convinced that he is a true Prophet, I shall become his follower.” Third leader, Abu Sufyan said, “Well, I shall not say anything. If I utter anything even these pebbles lying around us will inform him about it.”
Jibreel (AS) informed the Prophet (SAS) about their conversation. The Prophet (SAS) walked upto three leaders and said, “I know what you where whispering to each other. ” He (SAS) then repeated their conversation.. Both Haris and Attab said, “We swear that there was no other person around us who would have informed you of our conversation. We stand witness that there is only and only one God worth worship and you are the Prophet (SAS) of Allah (SWT).”
The Prophet (SAS) left Makkah after nineteen days stay there. It is amazing to note that he appointed Attab bin Aseed as governor of Makkah. The Prophet (SAS) returned the key of the House of Allah (SWT) to Usman bin Talha, who was still a disbeliever. Usman bin Talha was surprised to see this kind behavior of the Prophet (SAS) and hence he embraced Islam. The Prophet (SAS) announced that the key will stay in the family of Usman bin Talha until the Day of Judgment.
FEAR OF ANSAR
Ansar said to each other. Makkah is Prophet’s (SAS) home town. This is his birth place. Allah (SWT) has given him victory of this sacred city. The Prophet (SAS) will most probably choose to stay in his home land. During this conversation the Prophet (SAS) was busy making a dua (supplication) at mountain Safa. After dua he called Ansar and said to them, “What were you talking among yourselves?” They hesitated. The Prophet (SAS) insisted and they revealed their fear to him. At that, the Prophet (SAS) said to Ansar, “Don’t worry, now life and death is with you.”The Ansar were very pleased.
Hence, the Prophet (SAS) spent rest of his life in Madina even after the conquest of Makkah. This shows the importance of Madina.
DESTRUCTION OF OTHER MAJOR IDOLS
Prophet (SAS) sent Khalid bin Wallid (RA) to destroy Uzza (عزّى) Amr bin Aas (RA) (عمر ابن عاص ) to destroy Suwwa (سوى) and Sa’ad bin Zaid (RA) to destroy Manaat (مناة) after the conquest of Makkah.
In this way Allah ‘s religion prevailed in and around Makkah.
LARGE GROUPS EMBRACED ISLAM
Two thousand men and women of Quraish embraced Islam and made a pledge with the Prophet (SAS) at mountain Safa. Many other tribes were convinced about the truth of the Prophet hood of Muhammad (SAS) but were reluctant because of Quraish. Now other Arab tribes also embraced Islam in large groups. Surah An-Nasr #1-3
When there comes the help of Allah and conquest (of Makkah). And you will see that the people enter Allah’s religion in large crowds. So glorify Praises of your Lord, and ask His forgiveness. Verily He is the One Who accepts the repentance and Who forgives.
When the Prophet (SAS) recited these verses the companions were very pleased, but Abbas (RA) starting crying. The Prophet (SAS) asked him what made him cry. Abbas (RA) said, “It is an indication of the completion of your mission and probably Allah (SWT) will call you back in near future.” The Prophet (SAS) agreed with his thinking.
As we know now, this was the last complete Surah revealed to the Prophet (SAS) and he (SAS) died eighty days after revelation of this Surah.